A reasonable layout and structure of a common chicken house can provide a good living environment for chicken and give full play to productive potentiality. So in understanding the physiological character of chicken itself, it also must have a reasonable planning and building about the chicken house.
The layout of chicken house notice
1. The site should be chosen far away from residential areas and the road, where the transportation is convenient.
2. With high and dry terrain and plenty of sunshine, there should be as much light as possible in winter and appropriate wind in summer, without water after the rain, with large area and leaving room for development.
3. Water resources are rich, no pollution and easily accessible; electricity is guaranteed
4. House structure is practical and economic, which can save money and energy. Its orientation is in accordance with local natural and physiological conditions: good daylight, well ventilation and easy operation, which help stay cool in summer and heat preservation in winter.
5. The house layout should be reasonable where productive area and non-productive are separated, the non-productive area and water source are in the direction of the upwind, the dirty road and the net road be separated and don't cross, dung yards are in the direction of the downwind. Rearing house and broiler house be separated, rearing house in the direction of the upwind.
6. Know the popular situation of local poultry disease, try to avoid the epidemic area or have happened.
7. Avoid the city area polluted, take appropriate environmental protection measures and try to minimize environmental pollution
The house design
1. The overall requirement of chicken house building
(1) To meet the needs of the broiler breeding
(2) Leave room for technical reform so as to expand production. The construction should strictly enforce saving money and energy.
(3) With total layout requirements of chicken house.
2. The chicken house building ways
The construction of chicken house divided into closed and open type. The closed type is windowless, taking the artificial illumination and mechanical ventilation, which is an energy consumption chicken house. The micro-climate environment is easy to control and manage. The open type is energy saving chicken house with windows, which is to use natural resource outside the house. Generally without power to ventilated, fully use the artificial lighting. The weakness is affected greater by the external influence.
The house structural design is based on a combination of both the rational indicators of the best environment and economic indicators of construction cost; mainly related to the ventilation, warmth, cooling, drainage, lighting and other factors of chicken house.
The purpose of the ventilation is to exhaust polluted air in house as much as possible, then draw in the fresh air so as to keeping indoor air clean, cool, moisture dispersed and reducing the apparent temperature of chickens, which is the first element to weigh the chicken house environment.
(1) Parameters: ventilation volume calculation according to maximum capacity in summer, per kilogram weight 4 to 5 cubic meters per hour, the concentration of harmful gases is not more than ammonia 20ppm, hydrogen sulfide is l0ppm, carbon dioxide is 0.15%.
(2) The ventilation way has natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation.
No power, only to rely on nature's air and hot, resulting in air flow generally through the window, transom and the leaky joint forming air exchange.
Advantages: no special equipment, no power, low infrastructure costs, less maintenance, simple; if it has a reasonable design, installation and management can receive good results. The applications in the hot and north areas are better.
Disadvantages: the effect is not good by the limit of the heat preservation in cold season.
Natural ventilation should be paid attention to:
a. Should be used for unsealed house, house with windows, just open the front and rear windows.
b. The chicken house span should not more than 9 m.
c. Doors, windows and shutter can open and closed freely, and ensure tight and warm in winter. Adjust the ventilation of different seasons by the size of opening doors or shutter
d. Not only have an outlet, but also have air inlet, when breathing the air flow in the best formed "S" shape between the outlet and inlet, general the air inlet be at the bottom, outlet be in the above.
For enclosed and semi-enclosed house, the totally with forced ventilation depend on the fan, there are several common types:
a. Negative pressure ventilation: the dirty gas can be excluded from the house by the fans and formed a negative pressure, then the fresh air to be automatic into the house.
b. Positive pressure ventilation: the fan forces the fresh air outside into house.
c. Zero pressure ventilation, also known as the combination type ventilation, air supplying and exhausting at the same time, the fan load is small.
Mechanical ventilation should be paid attention to:
a. used in closed or semi-enclosed house and the power of the region have safeguard.
b. The key of design is a scientific organization of the air movement direction and speed; different regions have different purposes or emphasized aspects on ventilation design of broiler house. The ventilation and heat preservation will be harmonized in alpine region in winter; the south is working hard in the summer cooling and so on.
c. Setting up emergency time to prevent power failure.
The advantages of mechanical ventilation is ventilated thoroughly and rapid, the defect is large investment and high cost.
4. Delighting or illumination
For broiler, to ensure that light is not too strong, and thus the primary role of the window is ventilation, artificial lighting is to take more to ensure the broiler lighting, especially for closed house.
5. Thermal insulation
The roof is the largest heat loss area in cold season, also is the largest solar radiation area in the hot season, so the roof is the most important insulation region, followed by the wall; if it is the open type house making doors and windows open and close freely, and seal well.
Must taking the insulation materials or corresponding device for most walls and roof, thermal insulation material required high thermal resistance, good properties on thermal insulation, but also must take thickening the North wall thickness and hanging ceiling on roof ,etc. In more rain area, the eaves on both sides of the roof should be appropriate extension outward.