1. Site selection
Hatchery should be built on higher ground, with convenient transportation, abundant water and electricity resources, in where surroundings should be peace, elegant and air fresh (the best is full of trees round). Hatchery should be a separate place, away from the main traffic arteries more than 500 meters, away from the densely populated city center and residential area, also more away from large vibration, dust serious industrial and mining areas and poultry farms, slaughter plants, electroplating plants, pesticides and chemical plants and other polluting enterprises, to prevent from concuss embryos, being toxic and infecting diseases.
2. Hatchery planning
The scale of hatchery should be in accordance with the current development on chicken raising in the region. The number of chicken farms, chicken varieties and chicken on hand in the region should be fully investigated, then calculate the amount of chicks produced per month and the required number of eggs, batches and the number of eggs hatching each batch, last determine the number of incubator and hatching house area. According to the maximum number of each batch of hatcher to determine hatching room and chick’s storage room, eggs storage room, egg collection room, wash room, child box room and other needs of areas, as the basis for the construction field.
The layout of the hatchery must be planning strictly in accordance with " breeding eggs → eggs disinfected → Save → eggs disposal (classification code plate, etc.) → incubation → move → hatcher→ chicks disposal (classification identification, vaccination, etc.) → chicks stored" of production process. From the "eggs" to "hatcher", the smaller hatchery can use strip process layout; but large-scale hatchery should be with hatcher room and setter room as the center, according to the production process to determine the hatchery layout. You should arrange the location and size of other rooms in order to reduce transportation distance and staff‘s unnecessary exchanges between each rooms, improve the utilization rate of the room, effectively improve the incubation effect.
3. Hatchery building requirements
Waterproof material should be paved on the roof to prevent leaks rain. The best is to pave a layer of thermal insulation materials below which can effectively prevent the indoor heat in summer; it is easy to heat preservation in winter and does not produce condensation droplets in the ceiling. It is better to use the fire prevention, moisture proof, convenient for flushing and the disinfection materials to build the ceiling, wall and ground of hatchery. The distance between floor and ceiling should be 3.4 ~ 3.8m appropriate. Ground to be flat and smooth, easy to clean and disinfect management. The sewer located in the right place to wash room.
Setter room and hatcher room used the column-free structure best, which enable setter fixed in the right position, easy to work and ventilation.
Hatching room should be locating in north and facing south. The height and width of door are 2.4m and 1.2 ~ 1.5m respectively, so as to easy transport breeding eggs and chicks. A sliding door with good seal is appropriate. Rectangular windows, can freely switch. The area of the south windows (sunny side) may be appropriate bigger to facilitate lighting and insulation. The top and bottom of the window should be left the live fan, adjusting indoor ventilation rate and maintain indoor air purity according to the circumstances. The distance between the windows and the ground is 1.4 ~ 1.5m. The top of north wall should be left a small window, away from the ground is 1.7 ~ 1.9 m. Between the setter house and hatcher room should be built a shifting plate room, so that on one hand to facilitate the plate shifting, on the other hand can make a buffer role between the setter house and hatcher room, convenient for the operation management and sanitary and anti-epidemic of setter room. The setter room and hatcher room separated by only one door sometimes, and the door is non-closed, the dirty gas in hatcher room easily contaminate setter room. In particular, it is easier to cause serious pollution when putting the hatcher car or give harcher tray in setter room when hatcher.
The interval of incubator should be more than 80cm when install it, the distance between incubator and walls shall not be less than 1.1m (on the principle of without prejudice to the code disk and lighting eggs), the height from the top of the incubator to ceiling should be 1 ~ 1.5m.
4. Hatchery ventilation system.
In the design and installation of ventilation system consider not only to provide fresh air for the interior and to exhaustcarbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and other harmful gases, but also to coordinate the temperature and humidity, cannot taking care of this and lose another. The situations of rooms are different, ventilated alone each room best, exhaust waste gas outdoor. At least setter room and hatcher room should each have a separate ventilation system, temperature, humidity and ventilation-related technical parameters are listed in Table 1, Table 2. To reduce air pollution, before exhaust waste gas out of the hatcher room, it should be through the water tank with disinfectant and then exhausted to the outside. Otherwise the carrier's hair will pollute the air and spread throughout the hatchery and the other, resulting in large areas of severe pollution. According to test, through a disinfectant tank filter, you can eliminate 99% of pathogenic microorganisms in the gas; significantly improve the purity of air, thereby increasing the hatchability and chick’s quality.